跟着实例学习ZooKeeper的用法: 分布式锁

分布式的锁全局同步, 这意味着任何一个时间点不会有两个客户端都拥有相同的锁。

可重入锁Shared Reentrant Lock

首先我们先看一个全局可重入的锁。 Shared意味着锁是全局可见的, 客户端都可以请求锁。 Reentrant和JDK的ReentrantLock类似, 意味着同一个客户端在拥有锁的同时,可以多次获取,不会被阻塞。 它是由类InterProcessMutex来实现。 它的构造函数为:

public InterProcessMutex(CuratorFramework client, String path)

通过acquire获得锁,并提供超时机制:

public void acquire()
Acquire the mutex - blocking until it's available. Note: the same thread can call acquire
re-entrantly. Each call to acquire must be balanced by a call to release()

public boolean acquire(long time,
                       TimeUnit unit)
Acquire the mutex - blocks until it's available or the given time expires. Note: the same thread can
call acquire re-entrantly. Each call to acquire that returns true must be balanced by a call to release()

Parameters:
time - time to wait
unit - time unit
Returns:
true if the mutex was acquired, false if not

通过release()方法释放锁。 InterProcessMutex 实例可以重用。

Revoking ZooKeeper recipes wiki定义了可协商的撤销机制。 为了撤销mutex, 调用下面的方法:

public void makeRevocable(RevocationListener<T> listener)
将锁设为可撤销的. 当别的进程或线程想让你释放锁是Listener会被调用。
Parameters:
listener - the listener

如果你请求撤销当前的锁, 调用Revoker方法。

public static void attemptRevoke(CuratorFramework client,
                                 String path)
                         throws Exception
Utility to mark a lock for revocation. Assuming that the lock has been registered
with a RevocationListener, it will get called and the lock should be released. Note,
however, that revocation is cooperative.
Parameters:
client - the client
path - the path of the lock - usually from something like InterProcessMutex.getParticipantNodes()

错误处理 还是强烈推荐你使用ConnectionStateListener处理连接状态的改变。 当连接LOST时你不再拥有锁。

首先让我们创建一个模拟的共享资源, 这个资源期望只能单线程的访问,否则会有并发问题。

package com.colobu.zkrecipe.lock;

import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicBoolean;

public class FakeLimitedResource {
    private final AtomicBoolean inUse = new AtomicBoolean(false);

    public void use() throws InterruptedException {
        // 真实环境中我们会在这里访问/维护一个共享的资源
        //这个例子在使用锁的情况下不会非法并发异常IllegalStateException
        //但是在无锁的情况由于sleep了一段时间,很容易抛出异常
        if (!inUse.compareAndSet(false, true)) { 
            throw new IllegalStateException("Needs to be used by one client at a time");
        }
        try {
            Thread.sleep((long) (3 * Math.random()));
        } finally {
            inUse.set(false);
        }
    }
}

然后创建一个ExampleClientThatLocks类, 它负责请求锁, 使用资源,释放锁这样一个完整的访问过程。

package com.colobu.zkrecipe.lock;

import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFramework;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessMutex;

public class ExampleClientThatLocks {
    private final InterProcessMutex lock;
    private final FakeLimitedResource resource;
    private final String clientName;

    public ExampleClientThatLocks(CuratorFramework client, String lockPath, FakeLimitedResource resource, String clientName) {
        this.resource = resource;
        this.clientName = clientName;
        lock = new InterProcessMutex(client, lockPath);
    }

    public void doWork(long time, TimeUnit unit) throws Exception {
        if (!lock.acquire(time, unit)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(clientName + " could not acquire the lock");
        }
        try {
            System.out.println(clientName + " has the lock");
            resource.use(); //access resource exclusively
        } finally {
            System.out.println(clientName + " releasing the lock");
            lock.release(); // always release the lock in a finally block
        }
    }
}

最后创建主程序来测试。

package com.colobu.zkrecipe.lock;

import java.util.concurrent.Callable;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFramework;
import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFrameworkFactory;
import org.apache.curator.retry.ExponentialBackoffRetry;
import org.apache.curator.test.TestingServer;
import org.apache.curator.utils.CloseableUtils;

public class InterProcessMutexExample {
    private static final int QTY = 5;
    private static final int REPETITIONS = QTY * 10;
    private static final String PATH = "/examples/locks";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        final FakeLimitedResource resource = new FakeLimitedResource();
        ExecutorService service = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(QTY);
        final TestingServer server = new TestingServer();
        try {
            for (int i = 0; i < QTY; ++i) {
                final int index = i;
                Callable<Void> task = new Callable<Void>() {
                    @Override
                    public Void call() throws Exception {
                        CuratorFramework client = CuratorFrameworkFactory.newClient(server.getConnectString(), new ExponentialBackoffRetry(1000, 3));
                        try {
                            client.start();
                            final ExampleClientThatLocks example = new ExampleClientThatLocks(client, PATH, resource, "Client " + index);
                            for (int j = 0; j < REPETITIONS; ++j) {
                                example.doWork(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
                            }
                        } catch (Throwable e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        } finally {
                            CloseableUtils.closeQuietly(client);
                        }
                        return null;
                    }
                };
                service.submit(task);
            }
            service.shutdown();
            service.awaitTermination(10, TimeUnit.MINUTES);
        } finally {
            CloseableUtils.closeQuietly(server);
        }
    }
}

代码也很简单,生成10个client, 每个client重复执行10次 请求锁–访问资源–释放锁的过程。每个client都在独立的线程中。 结果可以看到,锁是随机的被每个实例排他性的使用。

既然是可重用的,你可以在一个线程中多次调用acquire,在线程拥有锁时它总是返回true。

你不应该在多个线程中用同一个InterProcessMutex, 你可以在每个线程中都生成一个InterProcessMutex实例,它们的path都一样,这样它们可以共享同一个锁。

不可重入锁Shared Lock

这个锁和上面的相比,就是少了Reentrant的功能,也就意味着它不能在同一个线程中重入。 这个类是InterProcessSemaphoreMutex。 使用方法和上面的类类似。

首先我们将上面的例子修改一下,测试一下它的重入。 修改ExampleClientThatLocks.doWork,连续两次acquire:

    public void doWork(long time, TimeUnit unit) throws Exception {
        if (!lock.acquire(time, unit)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(clientName + " could not acquire the lock");
        }
        System.out.println(clientName + " has the lock");
        if (!lock.acquire(time, unit)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(clientName + " could not acquire the lock");
        }
        System.out.println(clientName + " has the lock again");

        try {            
            resource.use(); //access resource exclusively
        } finally {
            System.out.println(clientName + " releasing the lock");
            lock.release(); // always release the lock in a finally block
            lock.release(); // always release the lock in a finally block
        }
    }

注意我们也需要调用release两次。这和JDK的ReentrantLock用法一致。如果少调用一次release,则此线程依然拥有锁。 上面的代码没有问题,我们可以多次调用acquire,后续的acquire也不会阻塞。 将上面的InterProcessMutex换成不可重入锁InterProcessSemaphoreMutex,如果再运行上面的代码,结果就会发现线程被阻塞再第二个acquire上。 也就是此锁不是可重入的。

可重入读写锁Shared Reentrant Read Write Lock

类似JDK的ReentrantReadWriteLock. 一个读写锁管理一对相关的锁。 一个负责读操作,另外一个负责写操作。 读操作在写锁没被使用时可同时由多个进程使用,而写锁使用时不允许读 (阻塞)。 此锁是可重入的。一个拥有写锁的线程可重入读锁,但是读锁却不能进入写锁。 这也意味着写锁可以降级成读锁, 比如请求写锁 —>读锁 —->释放写锁。 从读锁升级成写锁是不成的。

主要由两个类实现:

  • InterProcessReadWriteLock
  • InterProcessLock

使用时首先创建一个InterProcessReadWriteLock实例,然后再根据你的需求得到读锁或者写锁, 读写锁的类型是InterProcessLock

public InterProcessLock readLock()
public InterProcessLock writeLock()

例子和上面的类似。

package com.colobu.zkrecipe.lock;

import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFramework;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessMutex;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessReadWriteLock;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessSemaphoreMutex;

public class ExampleClientReadWriteLocks {
    private final InterProcessReadWriteLock lock;
    private final InterProcessMutex readLock;
    private final InterProcessMutex writeLock;
    private final FakeLimitedResource resource;
    private final String clientName;

    public ExampleClientReadWriteLocks(CuratorFramework client, String lockPath, FakeLimitedResource resource, String clientName) {
        this.resource = resource;
        this.clientName = clientName;
        lock = new InterProcessReadWriteLock(client, lockPath);
        readLock = lock.readLock();
        writeLock = lock.writeLock();
    }

    public void doWork(long time, TimeUnit unit) throws Exception {
        if (!writeLock.acquire(time, unit)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(clientName + " could not acquire the writeLock");
        }
        System.out.println(clientName + " has the writeLock");

        if (!readLock.acquire(time, unit)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException(clientName + " could not acquire the readLock");
        }
        System.out.println(clientName + " has the readLock too");

        try {            
            resource.use(); //access resource exclusively
        } finally {
            System.out.println(clientName + " releasing the lock");
            readLock.release(); // always release the lock in a finally block
            writeLock.release(); // always release the lock in a finally block
        }
    }
}

在这个类中我们首先请求了一个写锁, 然后降级成读锁。 执行业务处理,然后释放读写锁。

信号量Shared Semaphore

一个计数的信号量类似JDK的Semaphore。 JDK中Semaphore维护的一组许可(permits),而Cubator中称之为租约(Lease)。 有两种方式可以决定semaphore的最大租约数。第一种方式是有用户给定的path决定。第二种方式使用SharedCountReader类。 如果不使用SharedCountReader, 没有内部代码检查进程是否假定有10个租约而进程B假定有20个租约。 所以所有的实例必须使用相同的numberOfLeases值.

这次调用acquire会返回一个租约对象。 客户端必须在finally中close这些租约对象,否则这些租约会丢失掉。 但是, 但是,如果客户端session由于某种原因比如crash丢掉, 那么这些客户端持有的租约会自动close, 这样其它客户端可以继续使用这些租约。 租约还可以通过下面的方式返还:

public void returnAll(Collection<Lease> leases)
public void returnLease(Lease lease)

注意一次你可以请求多个租约,如果Semaphore当前的租约不够,则请求线程会被阻塞。 同时还提供了超时的重载方法。

public Lease acquire()
public Collection<Lease> acquire(int qty)
public Lease acquire(long time, TimeUnit unit)
public Collection<Lease> acquire(int qty, long time, TimeUnit unit)

主要类有:

  • InterProcessSemaphoreV2
  • Lease
  • SharedCountReader

下面是使用的例子:

package com.colobu.zkrecipe.lock;

import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFramework;
import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFrameworkFactory;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessSemaphoreV2;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.Lease;
import org.apache.curator.retry.ExponentialBackoffRetry;
import org.apache.curator.test.TestingServer;
import org.apache.curator.utils.CloseableUtils;

public class InterProcessSemaphoreExample {
    private static final int MAX_LEASE = 10;
    private static final String PATH = "/examples/locks";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        FakeLimitedResource resource = new FakeLimitedResource();
        try (TestingServer server = new TestingServer()) {

            CuratorFramework client = CuratorFrameworkFactory.newClient(server.getConnectString(), new ExponentialBackoffRetry(1000, 3));
            client.start();

            InterProcessSemaphoreV2 semaphore = new InterProcessSemaphoreV2(client, PATH, MAX_LEASE);
            Collection<Lease> leases = semaphore.acquire(5);
            System.out.println("get " + leases.size() + " leases");
            Lease lease = semaphore.acquire();
            System.out.println("get another lease");

            resource.use();

            Collection<Lease> leases2 = semaphore.acquire(5, 10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
            System.out.println("Should timeout and acquire return " + leases2);

            System.out.println("return one lease");
            semaphore.returnLease(lease);
            System.out.println("return another 5 leases");
            semaphore.returnAll(leases);
        }
    }

}

首先我们先获得了5个租约, 最后我们把它还给了semaphore。 接着请求了一个租约,因为semaphore还有5个租约,所以请求可以满足,返回一个租约,还剩4个租约。 然后再请求一个租约,因为租约不够,阻塞到超时,还是没能满足,返回结果为null。

上面说讲的锁都是公平锁(fair)。 总ZooKeeper的角度看, 每个客户端都按照请求的顺序获得锁。 相当公平。

多锁对象 Multi Shared Lock

Multi Shared Lock是一个锁的容器。 当调用acquire, 所有的锁都会被acquire,如果请求失败,所有的锁都会被release。 同样调用release时所有的锁都被release(失败被忽略)。 基本上,它就是组锁的代表,在它上面的请求释放操作都会传递给它包含的所有的锁。

主要涉及两个类:

  • InterProcessMultiLock
  • InterProcessLock

它的构造函数需要包含的锁的集合,或者一组ZooKeeper的path。

public InterProcessMultiLock(List<InterProcessLock> locks)
public InterProcessMultiLock(CuratorFramework client, List<String> paths)

用法和Shared Lock相同。

例子如下:

package com.colobu.zkrecipe.lock;

import java.util.Arrays;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFramework;
import org.apache.curator.framework.CuratorFrameworkFactory;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessLock;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessMultiLock;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessMutex;
import org.apache.curator.framework.recipes.locks.InterProcessSemaphoreMutex;
import org.apache.curator.retry.ExponentialBackoffRetry;
import org.apache.curator.test.TestingServer;

public class InterProcessMultiLockExample {
    private static final String PATH1 = "/examples/locks1";
    private static final String PATH2 = "/examples/locks2";

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        FakeLimitedResource resource = new FakeLimitedResource();
        try (TestingServer server = new TestingServer()) {
            CuratorFramework client = CuratorFrameworkFactory.newClient(server.getConnectString(), new ExponentialBackoffRetry(1000, 3));
            client.start();

            InterProcessLock lock1 = new InterProcessMutex(client, PATH1);
            InterProcessLock lock2 = new InterProcessSemaphoreMutex(client, PATH2);

            InterProcessMultiLock lock = new InterProcessMultiLock(Arrays.asList(lock1, lock2));

            if (!lock.acquire(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("could not acquire the lock");
            }
            System.out.println("has the lock");

            System.out.println("has the lock1: " + lock1.isAcquiredInThisProcess());
            System.out.println("has the lock2: " + lock2.isAcquiredInThisProcess());

            try {            
                resource.use(); //access resource exclusively
            } finally {
                System.out.println("releasing the lock");
                lock.release(); // always release the lock in a finally block
            }
            System.out.println("has the lock1: " + lock1.isAcquiredInThisProcess());
            System.out.println("has the lock2: " + lock2.isAcquiredInThisProcess());
        }
    }

}

新建一个InterProcessMultiLock, 包含一个重入锁和一个非重入锁。 调用acquire后可以看到线程同时拥有了这两个锁。 调用release看到这两个锁都被释放了。

再重申以便, 强烈推荐使用ConnectionStateListener监控连接的状态。

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